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Thread: ID request - Penang - April 5, 2024

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Dec 2022
    Penang Island, Malaysia

    Default ID request - Penang - April 5, 2024

    Hi Dr Seow,
    Request your help to id these observations. Thanks.

    Location: Penang Botanic Gardens - April 4, 2024
    #1 Pyroneura?

    #2 Isma?

    #3 Arhopala?

    #4 Arhopala?

    #5 Ypthima horsfieldi?

    Location: Air Itam Dam, Penang Island - Mar 27, 2024
    #6 Skipper?

    #7 Tagiades?

    Location: Penang Botanic Gardens - Mar 24, 2024
    #8 Arhopala?

    #9 Arhopala?

    #10 Arhopala?

    #11 Arhopala?

    #12 Arhopala pseudomuta?

    Cheers from Penang Island, SL Liew

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Nov 2010


    Likely Pyroneura helena.

    The picture quality is very poor & the colour balance is off.

    P. helena have a large rectangular hyaline spot in HW space 4-5, surrounded by dark bars.
    FW margin with the orange continuous along the margin.
    No other species quite match these.
    See fieldshot at the bottom.


    Isma bononia.
    The UnH has a series of hyaline spots edged in black making a meandering pattern.
    The hyaline spots can be difficult to discern.

    Two species are very similar.

    Isma bononia Underside is olive .
    Isma bononoides underside is ferruginous -rusty-brown.
    Last edited by Psyche; 06-Apr-2024 at 05:49 AM.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Nov 2010



    Probably Arhpala selta.

    This resembles A. pseudomuta but the FW spots 4, 5, 6, & 9 are in line.
    In A. pseudomuta the lower spot 4 is shifted out.

    The spots arrangement are as in the cleander group, alea subgroup.
    The features which suggest A. selta are.
    1. The FW margin is rounded.
    2. HW spot 6 is large & overlap the cellend bar strongly .but not spot 5.

    Too dark & blurry to ID.
    Probably A. pseudomuta.
    Last edited by Psyche; 06-Apr-2024 at 06:19 AM.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Nov 2010



    This is best left as Ypthima horsfieldii humei for the moment.
    Ground colour whiter & sriae darker grey.
    Ocelli usually well separated.
    HW spot 5 & 6 subequal ,sometimes spot 5 is smaller.

    Ypthima baldus newboldii.
    Ground colour pale buff & striae more ochreous.
    Ocelli often large, spots 2 & 3 more often conjoined.
    HW spot 5 almost always larger than spot 6.

    Eliot opined there are two species.
    The original dispersal of Y. baldus into Sundaland have created several new forms in each of the main islands ie taxa horsfieldii in java, morus in Sumatra, selinuntius in Borneo & 'humei ' in Malaya.

    Taxon horsfieldii in Java was elevated to a full species early on.

    When Malaya rejoined the mainland ,taxon newboldi moves in ,so two taxa newboldi & humei are present.

    However most authors treated taxon morus of Sumatra & taxon selinuntius of Borneo as subspecies of Y. baldus & not as ssp of Y. horsfieldi.

    The taxon (taxonomic name)Ypthima horsfieldi humei is also not recognised as valid in Thailand.
    Uemura studied the type specimen of taxon humei lodged in the British Museum, & concluded it is a form of taxon newboldi.
    Thus the name 'humei' becomes a junior synonym of newboldi & can not be used for another taxon.

    Recent DNA barcoding suggest there are some differences between the two .
    If the difference is valid then a name change is needed ie Ypthima horsfieldi X.... X is a new name.

    Currently the distribution of Ypthima horsfieldi is illogical.

    Ypthima horsfieldi horsfieldi Java.
    Ypthima horsfieldi 'humei' P. Malaysia.
    ypthima baldus morus ... sumatra.
    Ypthima baldus selinuntius ...Borneo.

    y. horsfieldi horsfieldi Java.

    Y. baldus selinuntius Borneo.

    Note there are many intermediates between what is regarded as Y. horsfieldi humei & what is Y. baldus newboldi.
    Last edited by Psyche; 07-Apr-2024 at 04:37 AM.

  5. #5
    Join Date
    Nov 2010


    Potanthus species.

    Should be female Tagiades litigiosa.

    FW spots too blur to see.
    HW with a large postdiscal black spots.
    marginal spots uniform in size.
    See the female from Trat.

    Last edited by Psyche; 07-Apr-2024 at 04:42 AM.

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Nov 2010



    These all belongs to the amphimuta group, subgroup amphimuta where HW spots 5, 6, & 7 are oblique & placed far from the cellend bar.
    There is no white spot at the tornus, so it is either A. amphimuta or major.
    In P. Malaysia A. amphimuta is much the commoner. (The opposite in Singapore.)

    A. amphimuta HW postdiscal all 4 spots in line ,"V" spot well-formed.
    Less typical, with HW postdiscal band dislocated & V spot less equal.

    A. major .Hw postdiscal band always dislocated & V spot distorted.

    The other subgroup usually have HW spot 6 large & nearer to the cellend bar.
    eg Arhopala kurzi (kurzi subgroup) V spot widely separated from the postdiscal band.

    Arhopala pseudomuta.

    Markings are as for this species.

    Similar A. elopura have spots with straighterr margins & little contrast with the ground colour.

    TL Seow; Cheers.

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Dec 2022
    Penang Island, Malaysia


    Dr Seow, Noted all the comments and explanations. Thanks so much for the ids and supporting information. Appreciate them. Cheers, SL Liew

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