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Thread: Arctornis in Singapore.

  1. #1
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    Default Arctornis in Singapore.

    After more than a decade there is still no further studies of the Arctornis in Singapore.
    MoB remains the sole reference.
    The white species are very difficult.
    However a few which can be identified can be eliminated from the unidentified list.

    Arctornis singaporensis.
    White, without corrugated scalings.
    No black discal spot.
    Veins green tinged.
    Male ground whiter & the veins stripes less defined.
    Female vein stripes enhanced by interneural bands of white scales,
    The two sexes can look like different species.
    Males.
    https://static.inaturalist.org/photo...706/large.jpeg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...3155/large.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...586/large.jpeg
    Females.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...366/large.jpeg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...3/original.jpg
    Pair.
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/105780706


    Arctornis marginalis.
    This rather rare as there is only one shot.Veins tinged green; grey triangles at distal margins.
    Apical costa dark edged.
    Singapore.
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/82994882
    P. Malaysia. Male & female.
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/35231033
    https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/19966353
    Last edited by Psyche; 28-Nov-2022 at 12:10 PM.

  2. #2
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    Collonette in 1932 wrote onthe Arctornis in Malaya (including Singapore).
    The white species recorded in Singapore includes A. nivosa, singaporensis, phrika, riguata, perfecta, camirusquama & marginalis.



    A 2019 survey of the Bukit Timah Forest include a new record, A. ungula.
    A. ungula is described as " frons with three black spots & two lower ones. legs spotted.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_40.php
    Probable A. ungula.
    Sabah.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...491/large.jpeg
    P. Malaysia.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...0195/large.jpg

  3. #3
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    Three species recorded in the past in Singapore are probably extinct.

    1. Arctornis perfecta.
    Large species with deep & acute FW in the male.
    No discal spot; satiny white without corrugation.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_36.php
    P.Malaysia.
    https://static.inaturalist.org/photo...7015/large.jpg



    2. Arctornis phrika.
    FW with a discal spot & a sinuous postmedial fascia.
    Frons & palps dull rufous brown & legs patched the same.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_26.php
    Fortunately there is a BOLD image with visible patterns.
    http://v3.boldsystems.org/pics/EPNG/...1479336568.JPG
    Sabah.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...135/large.jpeg
    P. Malaysia.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...7577/large.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...9/original.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...5808/large.jpg

    There is much confusion with Arctornis poecilonipha in the past.
    The general description seem to fit both.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_21.php

    Arctornis poecilonipha.
    FW with a rather larger irregular discal spot.
    Frons with a dark brown patch & palps much paler; legs marked with dark brown.
    FW more densely laid with opalescent scales, postmedial angled at 90% to costa at upper third.
    P. Malaysia.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...9230/large.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...8089/large.jpg
    https://static.inaturalist.org/photo...2218/large.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...0203/large.jpg



    3. Arctornis camurisquama.
    A distinctive white arcuate postmedial band that falls short of costa & dorsum. Costa more reflective.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_50.php
    Sabah.
    https://www.flickr.com/photos/botalex/5695953868
    Last edited by Psyche; 26-Nov-2022 at 04:51 AM.

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    Following are attempts at ID.
    There are far fewer species in Singapore & the majorities are likely to be widespread species.


    Arctonis nivosa. Mainland Asia.
    This is recorded from Singapore.
    Collinette state of this species , diaphanous like A. singaporensis, but creamy white, denser scaling & lacks the green veins.
    One specimen match this well.
    Bukit Panjang Sep 2020.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...494/large.jpeg


    Arctornis semihyalina. Sundaland to PNG.
    Translucent without dense patches; fine transverse strations in fresh specimen; Frons brown . Palps & foreleg paler brown.Discal spot present.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_24.php
    June 2022 MacRitchie Reservoir.
    https://static.inaturalist.org/photo...3592/large.jpg
    Jan 2022 Yishan
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...0115/large.jpg
    Aug. 2021 Yio Chu Kang.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...3484/large.jpg
    Feb. 2020 Yishan.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...0728/large.jpg

    There are some which do not show much striations although fresh. ? Probable variant.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...454/large.jpeg

    Wear quickly destroy the patterns in sparsely scaled species.
    Worn specimens.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...328/large.jpeg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...1714/large.jpg
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...3001/large.jpg
    Male with less rounded FW.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...429/large.jpeg

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    Arctornis riguata.

    This have a weak discal spot; irregularly oriented scales on the FW.
    Diagnostically there are deep faint grey triangle on the distal margin.
    The apical costa is darken, causing confusion with A. marginalis.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_22.php

    A serious outbreak occur in Probolinggo Java in 2011.
    Initally it was identified as A. submarginata.
    The 2013 article indicate it is largely Arctornis riguata.
    https://data03.123doks.com/thumbv2/1...-berwarna.webp
    https://www.sciencedirect.com/scienc...78301916301024

    Dec. 2014 Toh Yi Drive.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...5457/large.jpg
    Jul.2021 Thomson Lane.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...123/large.jpeg
    Jun. 2022 Sengkang.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...3053/large.jpg

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    Likely Arctornis rufimarginata.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_57.php
    Wings are uniform white (ie without corrugation or rippled scales).
    Fringe & costa golden-brown. Swinhoe states rufous (reddish)
    The colour is rendered too grey causing the brown to appear blackish.
    Jan. 2019 CWC.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...799/large.jpeg


    Possibly Arctornis hedleyi.. Prominent FW marginal grey 'triangles'.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_71.php
    Dec. 2021 USR.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...542/large.jpeg
    Last edited by Psyche; 29-Nov-2022 at 05:26 AM.

  7. #7
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    Probable Arctornis perfecta.
    The only satiny white species here with an acute FW (male) & lack a discal spot.
    Uniform white without corrugation or condensed scales.
    https://www.mothsofborneo.com/part-5...thini_1_36.php
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...676/large.jpeg
    The 2nd pic shows with a deeper brown patch besides each eye(whitish) & the palps shaded dark brown ventrally.
    The brown bar across the base of the antennae is not visible here.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...694/large.jpeg

    Other similar species have a black discal spot.
    UnIDed species.
    Fron is marked as described for A. submarginata but wingshape is incorrect.
    https://inaturalist-open-data.s3.ama...8487/large.jpg

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  9. #9
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    Dear Doctor Seow,

    Would then this observation be faded female Arctornis singaporensis?
    I do not understand the part where scale structure can be corrugated, but this observation is white, veins are green and lacks a discal spot
    Inat link - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/142270783

    Skipping regards
    Zicky
    Zick Soh

  10. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Zicky View Post
    Dear Doctor Seow,

    Would then this observation be faded female Arctornis singaporensis?
    I do not understand the part where scale structure can be corrugated, but this observation is white, veins are green and lacks a discal spot
    Inat link - https://www.inaturalist.org/observations/142270783

    Skipping regards
    Zicky
    Yes.
    A. singaporensis; No discal spot; no corrugation, green veins ;vein-stripes enhanced in the female.


    Corrugation : formings ridges , like roof tiles.
    ARCTONIS.png

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